Helda - University of Helsinki digital repository

This service allows you to browse and subsribe our publications. Content mostly in Finnish.


Kela publishes peer reviewed research findings and other current publications from our staff researchers as well as our associates – universities and research institutes.

Kela conducts multi-disciplinary research: our publication series contain writings from, among others, the fields of health sciences, medical sciences, social pharmacy, economics, social sciences, social law and statistics. Kela may also publish manuscripts, whose material is register or other data produced in Kela or which deal with Kela operations.

Texts submitted to be published by Kela must be previously unpublished. Manuscripts approved for publishing may be published elsewhere only with permission from Kela and the author.

Recent publications in English

Kotamäki M, Mattila J, Tervola J. Turning static pessimism to dynamic optimism. An ex-ante evaluation of unemployment insurance reform in Finland.
The research incorporates microsimulation method to calculate both static and dynamic effects on employment, public sector finances and income distribution. Accounting for dynamic i.e. behavioral response ends up in clearly more positive estimates of all outcomes.

Aaltonen K. Affordability of medicines from the pharmaceutical system perspective. Comparative analysis of Finland and New Zealand.
This study looks at the affordability and availability of pharmaceutical reimbursements in Finland and New Zealand. Its focus is on specific features of the reimbursement systems that affect the availability of medicines. Both systems studied have their strengths and weaknesses in relation to the affordability and availability of reimbursements In the Finnish reimbursement system, the level of out-of-pocket payments is higher, but the range of available new pharmaceuticals is broader.

Hussain MA, Kangas O. Is a handful of old tricks better than a sackful of new ones? Generations of research and post-retirement poverty in the European Union.
In welfare state research, it is customary to speak of generations of research: social expenditure; social rights; and the public-private mix in pension schemes. The aim of this working paper is to study to what extent the generations are linked to cross-national differences in old-age poverty measures as 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of the national median income. The expenditure approach displays the strongest association with the outcome. The two other generations perform less well. All the approaches share the same problem: not only pensions but many other factors have impacts upon the economic situation of the retired population. Furthermore, the dependent variable, old age poverty is an elusive concept that opens need for a new generation of comparative welfare studies.

From idea to experiment. Report on universal basic income experiment in Finland.
“From Idea to Experiment” summarizes the central aspects presented in the preliminary report on the universal basic income experiment in Finland. This shortened version tends to make it possible for a non-Finnish speaking reader to get an idea of what our working group had in mind when sketching the initial experimental setting. Furthermore, it includes explanations why the experimental setting defined in the legislative bill deviates from the model sketched in the preliminary report.

Martikainen P, Murphy M, Moustgaard H, Mikkonen J. Changes in the household structure of the Finnish elderly by age, sex and educational attainment in 1987–2035.
The study evaluates changes in the living arrangements of Finnish men and women aged 65 years and older in the period 1987 to 2011 and projects living arrangements to 2035 by age, sex and education. The results indicate that future elderly population will be better educated than ever before and is more likely to live with a spouse or partner. Future living arrangement distributions of older people are strongly determined, in particular, by past household behavior and, to a lesser extent, future changes in mortality.

The second expert group for evaluation of the adequacy of basic social security. Adequacy of basic social security in Finland 2011–2015.
This evaluation report examines the development of the adequacy of basic social security and the factors affecting it from 2011 to 2015. The disposable income of households depending on basic benefits increased between 2011 and 2015. With the exception of pensioners, the income level of persons relying on basic social security is not adequate to cover reasonable minimum costs determined in reference budgets. In Finland, the income level guaranteed by basic social security is in line with the average level in Western Europe, both before and after housing costs.

Haataja A, Valaste M. Applying child-based information to a microsimulation model. A better tool to assess outcomes of alternative entitlements to child care provisions?
The working paper looks at limiting the child home care allowance to children under the age of 2. The analyses are based on monthly level periodic data and a microsimulation method. The findings will shed light on the potential outcomes of such limitations on, e.g., the demand for child day care and the parents' labour supply as well as resulting costs.

Zhou M. Microsimulation. Statistical methodology and assessment of uncertainty.
Microsimulation is used to simulate the effects of legislation on households' benefits and taxes. This report describes two methods of microsimulation: static and dynamic microsimulation. The JUTTA model is used as an example.

Tuominen U. The effect of waiting time on health outcomes and costs of total joint replacement in hip and knee patients. A prospective randomized controlled trial.
This doctoral dissertation looks the effect waiting time has on the health outcomes and costs of total joint replacement surgeries. The results indicate that patients suffering from osteoarthritis benefit from total joint replacement surgery, but the length of the waiting period does not have a significant effect on the quality of life when assessed on different indicators.

Kemppainen T. Well-being in socio-political context. European welfare regimes in comparison.
This research looks at welfare is distributed on the basis of social status in Europe. In a comparison of five different welfare regimes the Nordic regime is successful. However, poverty exposes individuals to health problems in the Nordic regime as well.

Ikonen A. Primary care visits in the Finnish occupational health services and their connections to prevention and work-related factors.This doctoral dissertation looks at the role of occupational health services (OHS) in the health care of working persons as well as the relationship between primary care visits to OHS and prevention and work-related factors.

Toivonen L. Statutory and occupational sickness benefits in Finland in 2011.Working paper compares statutory sickness benefits and collectively negotiated sickness benefits in Finland. Paper concludes that the occupational benefits have a significant impact on the income during sickness.

Last modified 21/08/2017
Updated 22/10/2012