Social security coverage in certain special circumstances

Persons employed in several countries at the same time

If you work simultaneously in several EU or EEA countries or Switzerland for one and the same employer and one of those countries is also your country of residence, you will usually receive social security benefits from your country of residence. If your employment in your country of residence is not significant (a minimum of 25 %), the benefits will be paid by your employer's country of domicile.

If you work for two or more employers headquartered in different countries, your country of residence is responsible for your social security coverage. You will be paid benefits from your country of residence. You must meet the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment in all your countries of employment.

Persons who work in two or more countries need an A1 certificate. In Finland, the certificate is issued by the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus) as an indication that the employee is entitled to social security coverage in Finland.

If you move to Finland from a country other than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland, and you are permanently resident in Finland, you become entitled to social security coverage in Finland. If you do not live in Finland but your work here meets the minimum criteria regarding the terms of employment, you will become entitled to social security coverage in Finland for the duration of your employment. You will then be entitled to most Kela benefits if the other eligibility criteria for the benefits are met.

If you work for the same employer simultaneously both in your country of residence and in another EU or EEA country or Switzerland, the country of residence is usually responsible for the payment of benefits. If you do not work at all in your country of residence, the country where the employer is domiciled is responsible for the payment of benefits. If, on the other hand, you have at least two different employers that are domiciled in different countries, your country of residence is responsible for the payment of benefits.

Personnel of transportation companies

The personnel of transportation companies includes workers such as lorry drivers. They are covered by the same rules as others who work in several countries.

When it comes to countries other than the EU or EEA member countries, Switzerland or countries that have a social security agreement with Finland, the main rule is that if you take up permanent residence in Finland, you will become entitled to social security coverage in Finland. You may entitled to Kela benefits also on the basis of employment if your wage amounts to at least EUR 741.75 per month (in 2022).

Example

Marek is a lorry driver who lives in Estonia but works for a Finnish transport company. He transports freight from Finland to Sweden and further via Denmark to Germany. Since Marek does not work at all in his country of residence, Estonia, the country that is responsible for his social security benefits is determined according to the country where the employer is headquartered. In this case Finland is responsible for the social security coverage. His employer must apply for a certificate A1 from the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus) for Marek indicating coverage under the Finnish social security system during the work abroad. 

Seamen

Seamen from the EU or EEA countries, Switzerland or the United Kingdom who work on board a vessel carrying the Finnish flag are usually entitled to benefits regardless of whether they are permanently resident in Finland. One requirement for entitlement to benefits is that the wage amounts to at least EUR 741.75 per month (in 2022).

If you move to Finland but you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another EU or EEA country, Switzerland or the United Kingdom, the flag state is responsible for your social security benefits. In such a case, you are usually not entitled to Kela benefits even if you are permanently resident in Finland. If you live in Finland and the company that pays your wage is also headquartered here, you can receive benefits from Kela even if you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another Member State. You have to apply for an A1 certificate from the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus).

Seamen from a country other than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland, the United Kingdom or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland become entitled to Kela benefits if they take up permanent residence in Finland.

Cross-border workers

A cross-border worker is a person who works in an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or the United Kingdom, but who does not live in the country of employment. Cross-border workers regularly return to their country of residence daily or at least once per week. Cross-border work must be reported to Kela. Cross-border workers receive benefits from the country of employment regardless of which Member State they live in.

If you work in Finland and your wage amounts to at least EUR 741.75 per month, you may be entitled to Kela benefits regardless of which Member State you live in. In certain situations, you may be eligible for benefits (e.g. unemployment, medical treatment) also from your country of residence.