Social security coverage in certain situations

Persons employed in several countries at the same time

If you work simultaneously in several EU or EEA countries for one and the same employer and one of those countries is also your country of residence, you will normally be covered under the social security system of that country. If your employment in your country of residence is not significant (at least 25%) you will be covered under the social security system of your employer's place of domicile.

If you work for two or more employers headquartered in different countries, you will be covered under the social security system of your country of residence and any benefits payable to you will be paid from that country. You must meet the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment in your country of employment.

Those who work in two or more countries receive a certificate A1. In Finland, the certificate is issued by the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus) as an indication that the employee is covered under the Finnish social security system.

If you move to Finland from some other country than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland and you are permanently resident in Finland, you are covered under the Finnish social security system. If you are not resident in Finland but your employment here meets the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment, you will be covered under the Finnish social security system for the duration of the employment and you are entitled to most Kela benefits if the other entitlement criteria for the benefit in question are met.

If you work simultaneously in several EU or EEA countries for one and the same employer and one of those countries is also your country of residence, you will normally be covered under the social security system of that country. If you do not work in your country of residence at all, you are covered under the social security system of the country where your employer is headquartered. If you work for two or more employers headquartered in different countries, you will be covered under the social security system of your country of residence and any benefits paid to you will be calculated according to the rules applicable in that country. This requires that you meet certain minimum conditions concerning your employment.

Personnel of transportation companies

The personnel of transportation companies includes such personnel as lorry drivers and flight personnel. They are covered under the same rules as others who work in several countries.

When it comes to other countries than the EU/EEA member countries, Switzerland or countries that have a social security agreement with Finland, the main rule is that if you take up permanent residence in Finland, you will be covered under the Finnish social security system. If you work in Finland for 4 months or longer and your work meets the requirements for full-time weekly hours and pay, you can be covered under the Finnish social security system for the duration of the employment.

Example

Marek is a lorry driver who lives in Estonia but works for a Finnish transport company. He transports freight from Finland to Sweden and further via Denmark to Germany. Since Marek does not work at all in his country of residence Estonia, the country that is responsible for his social security benefits is determined according to the country where the employer is headquartered. Finland is responsible for the social security coverage. An A1 certificate has to be applied for with the Finnish Centre for Pensions for the employee.

Seamen

Seamen from the EU and EEA countries and Switzerland who work on board a vessel carrying the Finnish flag are usually covered under the Finnish social security system regardless of whether they live permanently in Finland. A prerequisite is that the work lasts at least four months and the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment are met.

If you move to Finland but you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another EU or EEA country, you are covered under the social security system of the flag state. You cannot at the same time be covered under the Finnish social security system even if you live here on a permanent basis. Then again, if you live in Finland and the company that pays your wage is also headquartered here, you are usually covered under the Finnish social security system even if you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another member state. You have to apply for an A1 certificate with the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus).

Seamen from some other country than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland are normally covered under the Finnish social security system if they take up permanent residence in Finland.

Cross-border workers

Cross-border worker means a person who works in one EU or EEA country but lives in another EU or EEA country, where he or she returns daily or at least once a week. You are covered under the social security system of your country of employment regardless of where you live.

If you work in Finland for at least four months and your work meets the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment, you are covered under the Finnish social security system regardless of where you live. In certain situations, you may be eligible for benefits (e.g. unemployment, medical treatment) also from your country of residence.