Social security coverage in certain situations

Persons employed in several countries at the same time

If you work simultaneously in several EU or EEA countries for one and the same employer and one of those countries is also your country of residence, you will normally be entitled to social security coverage in that country. If your employment in your country of residence is not significant (in total at least 25%) you will be covered under the social security system of your employer's place of domicile.

If you work for two or more employers headquartered in different countries, you will be entitled to social security coverage in your country of residence and any benefits payable to you will be paid from that country. You must meet the minimum requirements regarding the terms of employment in your countries of employment.

Those who work in two or more countries receive a certificate A1. In Finland, the certificate is issued by the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus) as an indication that the employee is entitled to social security coverage in Finland.

If you move to Finland from some other country than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland and you are permanently resident in Finland, you are entitled to social security coverage in Finland. If you do not live in Finland but your wage exceeds the minimum level of EUR 696.60 per month, you will become entitled to benefits for the duration of the employment.

If you work simultaneously in several EU or EEA countries for one and the same employer and one of those countries is also your country of residence, you will normally be entitled to social security coverage in that country. If you do not work in your country of residence at all, you are entitled to social security coverage in the country where your employer is headquartered.

Personnel of transportation companies

The personnel of transportation companies includes such workers as lorry drivers and flight personnel. They are covered by the same rules as others who work in several countries.

When it comes to other countries than the EU and EEA countries, Switzerland or countries that have a social security agreement with Finland, the main rule is that if you take up permanent residence in Finland, you will become entitled to social security coverage in Finland. You may be entitled to Kela benefits also on the basis of employment if the wage amounts to at least EUR 696.60 per month (in 2019).

Example

Marek is a lorry driver who lives in Estonia but works for a Finnish transport company. He transports freight from Finland to Sweden and further via Denmark to Germany. Since Marek does not work at all in his country of residence Estonia, the country that is responsible for his social security benefits is determined according to the country where the employer is headquartered. Finland is responsible for the social security benefits. An A1 certificate has to be applied for with the Finnish Centre for Pensions for the employee.

Seamen

Seamen from the EU and EEA countries and Switzerland who work on board a vessel carrying the Finnish flag are usually entitled to benefits regardless of whether they are permanently resident in Finland. One requirement for entitlement to benefits is that the wage amounts to at least EUR 696.60 per month (in 2019).

If you move to Finland but you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another EU or EEA country, the flag state is responsible for the social security benefits. In such a case, you are usually not entitled to Kela benefits even when you are permanently resident in Finland. If you live in Finland and the company that pays your wage is also headquartered here, you can receive benefits from Kela even if you work on board a vessel carrying the flag of another Member State. You have to apply for an A1 certificate with the Finnish Centre for Pensions (Eläketurvakeskus).

Seamen from some other country than an EU or EEA country, Switzerland or a country that has a social security agreement with Finland become entitled to Kela benefits if they take up permanent residence in Finland.

Cross-border workers

Cross-border worker means a person who works in one EU or EEA country but lives in another EU or EEA country, where he or she returns daily or at least once a week. Cross-border workers receive benefits from the country of employment regardless of which Member State they live in.

If you work in Finland and your wage amounts to at least EUR 696.60 per month, you may be entitled to Kela benefits regardless of which Member State you live in. In certain situations, you may be eligible for benefits (e.g. unemployment, medical treatment) also from your country of residence.